Anyone that shops needs to know how to quickly check percentages.
Check out these videos. ~Sandy
Unemployment is the lowest it’s been in seven years, at 5 percent, and for those with a bachelor’s degree or higher the rate is actually half that. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics the economy has been adding well over 200,000 jobs a month. And healthcare, professional and technical services, retail, manufacturing, finance and government are all adding jobs.
Current U.S. employees—especially those looking to switch jobs—can expect a raise in 2016. A WorldatWork study found U.S. workers can expect an average base salary raise of 3.1 percent next year, but top performers can expect higher-than-average merit-based salary increases. New research from The Conference Board found that labor markets have tightened faster than expected, and that could mean employers will have to start raising wages faster than they have been. And research from SHRM and Rutgers University shows that the newly hired are seeing increased pay—which reflects the need for businesses to raise wages in order to attract new talent.
For those doing the hiring, employee retention will be a top priority in the new year. In fact, LinkedIn’s 2016 Global Recruiting Trends report found that nearly 60 percent of companies are investing more in their brand in an effort to keep current employees happy and recruit new, well-qualified talent.
Some of the job market and hiring trends to keep in mind as we head into the new year:
Sure, those sectors are growing, but there are plenty of opportunities for new jobs and long-term, thriving careers in areas like marketing, sales, finance and transportation. Recent studies have found that among the top ten fastest growing occupations are nurses, software developers and network and computer system administrators, marketing managers, sales managers, industrial engineers, construction professionals and financial managers.
There’s no question software developers are still in high demand. Nearly one in every 20 open job postings in the U.S. is related to software development and/or engineering. Also in demand, is expertise with data analytics –now one of the most in-demand skills in the U.S.
Some of the highest growth tech companies, like Amazon and Facebook, have a great need for marketing managers. In fact, it’s the highest volume job opening after software developer/engineer. But the requirements are changing, because of the rapid growth of digital consumer advertising. The job increasingly requires the use of analytics to navigate new marketing channels and ways of acquiring customers.
We’ll see a lot more Millennials in management positions in 2016. A new study from Upwork reports that nearly 30 percent of managers today are Millennials, with five percent seniors managers and two percent in executive positions. The study found that within ten years nearly half of Millennials are aiming to be senior managers; seven percent want to be executives and 15 percent want to be business owners. The global consultancy EY (Ernst & Young) is a good example of this leadership transition underway–about 60 percent of its managers are Millennials, as well as 18 percent of its senior managers.
The use of video to attract and recruit talent is increasing because of its high impact—it’s an engaging way to show the culture of a company, as well as the excitement and passion around the the company’s mission, products and services. Expect to see more employee videos shot on cell phones, to give a more authentic peek inside a company, as well as personalized recruiting videos, video job descriptions and, yes, even video job offers.
The technology available to recruiters today is better than it’s ever been, allowing them to optimize the entire recruiting and hiring process, from job descriptions to the process of nurturing and interviewing candidates, to developing and setting compensation. Letting data guide the hand of recruiters will most likely make the experience better for job candidates, allowing companies to better establish and nurture relationships with both current and potential candidates.
According to the Collegiate Employment Research Institute, states in the Mid-Atlantic, Southeast and Southcentral, as well as the Central Midwest will see the greatest uptick in hiring, as much as a 40 percent increase from last year. In fact, regional employers will be increasing their hiring by the greatest percentage next year, nearly 20 percent over 2015. U.S. employers, the Institute’s new trend report says, “are entering the recruiting season with very high expectations for hiring.”
Here are eight things you can do to celebrate this day!
1. Plant a tree. Make sure to pick the right type of tree for the right environment and correctly plant and care for it.
2. Organize an Arbor Day block party. Get your neighborhood excited about caring for the trees that line the streets in front of their homes.
3. Write a poem or a rap about trees. The spoken word can add another dimension to any Arbor Day event.
4. Clean up litter at a public park or downtown area. No matter if the litter is intentional or unintentional, big or small, it can have a serious impact on the environment for many years to come.
5. Host a “big tree” or “oldest tree” search within your community. After the contest, you can label the winners that are in public places.
6. Read a book about trees. Learn about the different types of trees that grow in your backyard and how toidentify them by their leaves, bark and seeds.
7. Go on a hike. Spend time with nature and appreciate the trees around you.
8. Volunteer with a local tree-planting or environmental group. You’ll meet new people and make a difference in your community.
The percentage of first-time public four-year college students who were residents of the states in which they were enrolled declined from 84% in fall 2002 to 80% in fall 2012.
NOTE: Four-year institution categories include only those institutions where more than 50% of degrees/certificates awarded are bachelor’s degrees or higher.
SOURCES: NCES, IPEDS enrollment data; calculations by the authors.
The latest national data shows that more students are getting their high-school diplomas than ever before. Just over 82 percent of the students who were high-school seniors during the 2013-14 year graduated, up from 81 percent the year before. The rate has inched up annually over the last few years, largely because of strides made by disadvantaged students.
But that doesn’t mean more kids are going to college. Quite the opposite. Recently released numbers out of the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center suggests that college-enrollment rates have actually decreased—and for the fourth straight year, all despite massive increases in federal aid for students who can’t afford tuition. The number of students enrolling in colleges and universities this year is 1.7 percent lower than it was last year. (The percentage of high-school graduates who immediately enrolled in college fell from 69 percent in 2008 to 66 percent in 2013.)
This isn’t new information, but it is new data for a new year, so it’s worth asking again: Where are all those high-school graduates going if they’re not ending up in higher education? For economists and education experts, the answer is obvious. As the Stanford economist Caroline Hoxby and the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign economist Jeffrey Brown have famously argued, students were more likely to enroll and stay in college during the Great Recession; at a time when there are fewer jobs, would-be college students are more likely to invest in opportunities to develop skills and enhance their chances at getting employed. People are drawn back toward the workforce once the economy has started to recover, which is what experts suspect is happening now. So this college-enrollment trend could be considered, as The Atlantic’s Derek Thompson wrote back in 2013, “actually a sign of good news.”
Something very different and quite noteworthy is happening at the K-12 level, though, where traditionally at-risk students, particularly kids of color, are responsible for the biggest improvements in high-school completion. Conversely, disadvantaged students, in this case those who are poor or coming from families without a history of going to college, are a big reason the college-enrollment numbers are going down, as are people over age 25. Based on U.S. Census Bureau figures, the percentage of students from low-income families attending college immediately after getting their high-school diplomas has declined by 10 percentage points since 2008, to 46 percent. Only those institutions that serve the largest percentages of disadvantaged students—two-year and for-profit colleges—have seen enrollment drop; it’s actually slightly increased or remained steady at four-year institutions.
In some ways, the high-school graduates who head straight into the labor market are the most practical among diploma recipients. The Atlantic’s Gillian White has pointed out that the types of institutions seeing the most significant declines in enrollment tend to offer degrees that provide only marginal improvements in job prospects compared to high-school diplomas. Today, the popularity of a given degree and its return on investment are often “almost inversely related,” said Anthony Carnevale, who directs Georgetown University’s Center on Education and the Workforce. The high-school graduates who tend to forgo college and make it in the economy, Carnevale added, are also the ones who can land jobs that aren’t traditionally associated with higher-education degrees—blue-collar fields such as manufacturing, mining, and agriculture. Carnevale said there are only a few ways to beat the college wage premium—the income advantage of having a college degree—“and generally the only people who beat this game are boys.” In blue-collar jobs, “you can work your way up, learn on the job. But there’s none of that for females. Basically, there’s no real pathway for girls out of high school [except college].” No wonder women account for a majority of today’s college-degree-holders. “When enrollments go down, the first thing you lose are the boys.”
But going the non-college route is increasingly impractical, even when the objective is a job that’s more vocational in nature. While a job may certainly be an appealing alternative to an increasingly costly postsecondary education, the college wage premium has risen drastically since the early 1980s. The Pew Research Center called this “the rising cost of not going to college” in a report last year, concluding, “On virtually every measure of economic well-being and career attainment—from personal earnings to job satisfaction to the share employed full time—young college graduates are outperforming their peers with less education. And when today’s young adults are compared with previous generations, the disparity in economic outcomes between college graduates and those with a high school diploma or less formal schooling has never been greater in the modern era.”
Carnevale said a key obstacle to getting more high-school graduates enrolled in college is limited information; postsecondary education in the U.S. is “like a big computer with no operating system.” Americans, he said, have a “chaotic” understanding of the role of college in the economy. “Students are lost; they don’t know how to make these connections” between the value of a college degree and their position within the economy. This is why lobbying groups and businesses have been advocating for greater correspondence between career-and-technical education and the demands of the labor market and development of more alternative credentialing programs.
The College Scorecard, which Obama unveiled last September, uses troves of institutional data to improve transparency about the country’s colleges and universities; users can sort results based on various metrics, such as the percent of students who earn above high-school graduates or the average salary after attending. But as Carnevale argued, it’s “more symbolic than real.” It gives users access to federal data on graduation rates and attendance-cost figures at thousands of colleges and universities, but it doesn’t break that data down by area of study. For example, if I were to search for “Communication, Journalism, and Related Programs” at four-year private universities, the results on graduation rates and salary outcomes would only reflect students who attended the school at large—not the communications or journalism graduates specifically. Yet, for the most part, a person’s major is, as a Brookings paper concluded last year, “likely a much more important driver of salaries than the overall institution.” In fact, close to a third of Americans with associate’s degrees—30 percent—earn more than those with bachelor’s degrees, according to research done by the Georgetown workforce center.
The growing mismatch between rates for high-school graduation and college attendance in the U.S. may largely have to do with the challenges with outreach and resources faced by community colleges, which often struggle to provide support to students. “Most people would say higher education is not connected to the economy, which is not true,” Carnevale said. “The higher-ed curriculum is very oriented toward the economy (with some obvious exceptions)—it’s just not connected strongly enough, as a counseling and career-planning system.”
There is “this information problem, this confusion, the Tower of Babel that you face when you’re looking at the economy and higher education,” he continued. “You’re young; you don’t want to take out loans … People are pretty much just wandering around between youth dependency and adult dependence.” And ultimately, even high-school graduation rates are falling short of expectations. This year marked the first time in a while that the country stumbled on its way to reaching a 90-percent graduation rate by 2020.
Most students experience some level of anxiety during an exam
However, when anxiety affects exam performance it has become a problem.
General preparation/building confidence:
Review your personal situation and skills
Academic counselors can help you in these areas, or refer to our Guides on the topic:
Test preparation to reduce anxiety:
During the test:
Use relaxation techniques
If you find yourself tensing and getting anxious during the test:
Relax; you are in control.
Take slow, deep breaths
Don’t think about the fear
Pause: think about the next step and keep on task, step by step
Use positive reinforcement for yourself:
Acknowledge that you have done, and are doing, your best
Expect some anxiety
It’s a reminder that you want to do your best and can provide energy
Just keep it manageable
Realize that anxiety can be a “habit”
and that it takes practice to use it as a tool to succeed
After the test, review how you did
Check out local centers and resources in your school for assistance!
If you are aware that you have a problem with test anxiety,
be sure your teacher or instructor knows before any testing begins
(and not the hour before!).
There may be other options to evaluate your knowledge or performance within the subject matter.
Thank you Karl M. Bunday for this research!
Copyright © 2013 Karl M. Bunday, all rights reserved.
Every year homeschoolers are admitted to hundreds of colleges in at least five countries. Those who prepare thoroughly can be admitted with full scholarships at those selective colleges that some parents daydream about their children attending. Read on to find out which colleges have admitted homeschooled children, and continue to the linked subpages to find out more about how to get into the college of your choice.
More than 1,000 schools of higher education appear on this FAQ and its subpages, and links to over 980 college Web sites appear on these pages. Entries followed by double exclamation points (!!) are those confirmed to have admitted at least one homeschooled applicant. Asterisks (* *) following names of schools known to accept homeschoolers show how many printed sources of college ratings mention those schools as “selective” or “good” colleges. See subpages forother colleges A-G, for other colleges H-S, for other colleges T-Z, and for open-admission colleges reported to have accepted home-schooled students. Use this site’s site search feature to find out whether a college you know about is already listed, and on which page.
Adelphi U. !! NY * *
Agnes Scott C. !! GA * * *
Albertson C. !! ID * * * *
Albion C. !! MI * *
Alfred U. !! NY * * * *
Allegheny C. !! PA * * *
Alma C. [yes] MI * *
Alverno C. !! WI *
American U. !! DC * * * *
Amherst C. !! MA * * * * * *
Antioch C. !! OH *
Arizona State U. !! AZ * *
Asbury C. !! KY *
Assumption C. !! MA *
Auburn U. !! AL * * * * * *
Augustana C. !! IL *
Austin C. !! TX * * * *
Baylor U. !! TX * * * * *
Beloit C. !! WI * * * *
Bemidji State U. !! MN *
Bennington C. !! VT * * *
Berea C. !! KY *
Berklee C. of Music !! MA *
Berry C. !! GA * *
Bethany C. !! WV *
Bethel C. !! MN *
Biola U. !! CA *
Birmingham-Southern C. !! AL * * * * *
Boston C. !! MA * * * * * *
Boston Conservatory !! MA *
Boston U. !! MA * * * * * *
Bowdoin C. !! ME * * * * * *
Bradley U. !! IL * *
Brandeis U. !! MA * * * * *
Brigham Young U. !! UT * * * * *
Brown U. !! RI * * * * * *
Bryn Mawr C. !! PA * * * * * *
Bucknell U. !! PA * * * *
Buena Vista U. !! IA *
Butler U. !! IN * *
California Institute of Technology !! CA * * * * * *
California Polytechnic State U., San Luis Obispo !! CA *
California State U.–Los Angeles !! CA *
Calvin C. !! MI * * * * *
Capital U. !! OH *
Carleton C. !! MN * * * * *
Carnegie Mellon U. !! PA * * * * * *
Carroll C. !! MT *
Case Western Reserve U. !! OH * * * * *
Catholic U. of America !! DC * * * * *
Cedarville C. !! OH *
Central C. !! IA *
Christian Brothers U. !! TN *
Claremont McKenna C. !! CA * * * * * * *
Clemson U. !! SC * * * * *
Coe C. !! IA *
Colby C. !! ME * * * * * *
C. of St. Benedict !! MN * *
C. of St. Scholastica !! MN *
C. of the Atlantic !! ME * * *
C. of William and Mary !! VA * * * * * * *
C. of Wooster !! OH * * * *
Colorado C. !! CO * * * *
Colorado School of Mines !! CO * * * * *
Colorado State U. !! CO *
Concordia C. !! Moorhead, MN *
Cornell C. !! IA * *
Cornell U. !! NY * * * * * *
Creighton U. !! NE * * * *
Dartmouth C. !! NH * * * * * *
David Lipscomb U. !! TN *
Davidson C. !! NC * * * * * * *
Delaware Valley C. !! PA *
Denison U. !! OH * * * *
DePaul U. !! IL * * * *
DePauw U. !! IN * * *
Dickinson C. !! PA * * *
Drake U. !! IA * * *
Drew U. !! NJ * * *
Drexel U. !! PA * *
Drury C. !! MO *
Duke U. !! NC * * * * * *
Duquesne U. !! PA * *
Earlham C. !! IN * * * *
Eckerd C. !! FL * * *
Edinboro U. of Pennsylvania !! PA *
Elizabethtown C. !! PA *
Emory U. !! GA * * * * *
Evergreen State C. !! WA * * *
Fashion Institute of Technology !! NY *
Florida Institute of Technology !! FL * *
Franciscan U. of Steubenville OH !! * *
Franklin and Marshall C. !! PA * * * *
George Fox U. !! OR *
George Mason U. !! VA * * *
George Washington U. !! DC * * * *
Georgetown U. !! DC * * * * * *
Georgia Institute of Technology !! GA * * * * * * *
Gettysburg C. !! PA * * *
Goddard C. !! VT *
Gordon C. !! MA *
Goshen C. !! IN *
Goucher C. !! MD * * *
Grinnell C. !! IA * * * *
Grove City C. !! PA * * * * *
Guilford C. !! NC * * * *
Gustavus Adolphus C. !! MN * * * *
Hampshire C. !! MA * * *
Hanover C. !! IN * * *
Harding U. !! AR *
Harvard U. !! MA * * * * * * *
Harvey Mudd C. !! CA * * * * *
Hastings C. !! NE * *
Haverford C. !! PA * * * * * * *
Hillsdale C. !! MI * * * *
Hiram C. !! OH * * * *
Hobart and William Smith Colleges !! NY * * *
Hood C. !! MD *
Hope C. !! MI * * *
Houghton C. !! NY * * *
Humboldt State U. !! CA *
Illinois Institute of Technology !! IL * * * *
Illinois Wesleyan U. !! IL * * * *
Indiana U., Bloomington !! IN * * * *
Iowa State U. !! IA * * * *
Ithaca C. [yes] NY *
James Madison U. !! VA * * * * *
John Brown U. !! AR *
Johns Hopkins U. !! MD * * * * * *
Juniata C. !! PA * *
Kalamazoo C. !! MI * * *
Kansas State U. !! KS *
Kenyon C. !! OH * * * * *
Kettering U. !! MI * *
King C. !! TN *
Knox C. !! IL * * * *
Lafayette C. !! PA * * * *
Lake Forest C. !! IL * * *
Lawrence U. !! WI * * * * *
LeTourneau U. !! TX *
Lewis & Clark C. !! OR * * *
Linfield C. !! OR *
Louisiana State U. and Agricultural and Mechanical C. !! LA * * * *
Loyola C. !! MD * * *
Loyola U. Chicago !! IL * * *
Luther C. !! IA *
Macalester C. !! MN * * * * *
Marietta C. !! OH *
Marlboro C. !! VT * * *
Marquette U. !! WI * * * * *
Maryland Institute C. of Art !! MD * *
Maryville C. !! TN *
Massachusetts Institute of Technology !! MA * * * * * *
Messiah C. !! PA *
Miami U. !! OH * * * * *
Michigan Technological U. !! MI * * * *
Middlebury C. !! VT * * * * * *
Mills C. !! CA * * *
Montana State U.–Billings !! MT *
Montana State U.–Bozeman !! MT *
Montana Tech of the U. of Montana !! MT * *
Mount Holyoke C. !! MA * * * * *
Muhlenberg C. !! PA * * *
Muskingum C. !! OH
New C. of the U. of South Florida !! FL * * * *
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (New Mexico Tech) !! NM * * * *
New York U. !! NY * * * * *
North Carolina State U. !! * * * * *
North Central C. !! IL *
Northeastern U. !! MA * *
Northwestern C. !! IA *
Northwestern U. !! IL * * * * * *
Oberlin C. !! OH * * * * *
Occidental C. !! CA * * * *
Oglethorpe U. !! GA * * * *
Ohio Northern U. !! OH * *
Ohio State U.: Columbus Campus !! OH * * * *
Ohio U. !! OH * * * * *
Ohio Wesleyan U. !! OH * * * *
Oklahoma City U. !! OK *
Oklahoma State U. !! OK *
Oregon State U. !! OR *
Ouachita Baptist U. !! AR *
Pacific Lutheran U. !! WA *
Pennsylvania State U. University Park Campus !! PA * * * *
Pepperdine U. !! CA * * * * * *
Philadelphia C. of Pharmacy and Science !! PA *
Pitzer C. !! CA * * *
Polytechnic U. [yes] NY *
Pomona C. !! CA * * * * * *
Princeton U. !! NJ * * * * * *
Providence C. !! RI * * * *
Purdue U. !! IN * * * * *
Quincy University !! IL *
Radford U. !! VA *
Reed C. !! OR * * * *
Regis U. !! CO *
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute !! NY * * * *
Rhode Island School of Design !! RI * * * *
Rhodes C. !! TN * * * * * *
Rice U. !! TX * * * * * *
Ripon C. !! WI * * *
Rochester Institute of Technology !! NY * * * *
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology !! IN * * * *
Rutgers, State U. of New Jersey, Rutgers C. !! NJ * * * * *
St. Andrews Presbyterian C. !! NC *
St. Bonaventure U. !! NY *
St. John’s C. !! MD & NM * * * * *
St. John’s U. !! MN * * *
St. Joseph’s C. !! ME *
St. Joseph’s U. !! PA *
Saint Mary’s C. !! IN * * *
St. Mary’s C. of California !! CA * * *
St. Mary’s C. of Maryland !! MD * * * *
St. Norbert C. !! WI * *
St. Olaf C. !! MN * * * * *
St. Vincent C. !! PA *
Samford U. !! AL * *
Sarah Lawrence C. !! NY * * * *
Seattle U. !! WA *
Seton Hall U. !! NJ *
Shepherd C. [yes] WV *
Simmons C. !! MA *
Simon’s Rock C. of Bard !! MA * *
Smith C. !! MA * * * * *
Southern Methodist U. !! TX * * * *
Spring Arbor C. !! MI
Stanford U. !! CA * * * * * * *
State U. of New York at Binghamton !! NY * * * * *
State U. of New York C. at Geneseo !! NY * * *
Stephens C. !! MO *
Stetson U. !! FL * * *
Swarthmore C. !! PA * * * * * *
Sweet Briar C. !! VA * * *
Syracuse U. !! NY * * * *
Taylor U. !! IN *
Temple U. !! PA *
Texas A & M U., College Station !! TX * * * * *
Texas Christian U. !! TX * * *
Thomas Aquinas C. !! CA * * *
Trinity U. !! TX * * * * *
Truman State U. !! MO * * * *
Tulane U. !! LA * * * * *
Union U. !! TN *
United States Air Force Academy !! Colorado Springs, CO * * *
United States Coast Guard Academy !! CT * * *
United States Military Academy !! West Point, NY * * * *
United States Naval Academy !! Annapolis, MD * * * *
U. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa !! AL * *
U. of Alabama in Huntsville !! AL *
U. of Arizona !! AZ * * * *
U. of California: Berkeley !! CA * * * * *
U. of California: Davis !! CA * * * * *
U. of California: Riverside !! CA * * * * *
U. of California: San Diego !! * * * *
U. of California: Santa Cruz !! CA * * * *
U. of Chicago !! IL * * * * * * *
U. of Cincinnati !! OH * *
U. of Colorado at Boulder !! CO * * * * *
U. of Connecticut !! CT * * * *
U. of Dallas !! TX * * * * *
U. of Dayton !! OH * * * * *
U. of Delaware !! DE * * * *
U. of Denver !! CO * * * *
U. of Evansville !! IN * *
U. of Florida !! FL * * * *
U. of Georgia !! GA * * * * *
U. of Houston !! TX *
U. of Idaho !! ID * *
U. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign !! IL * * * * * *
U. of Iowa !! IA * * * *
U. of Kansas !! KS * * * * *
U. of Kentucky !! KY * * *
U. of Maine, Farmington !! ME *
U. of Maine, Orono !! ME * *
U. of Maryland, College Park !! MD * * * *
U. of Massachusetts Amherst !! MA * * * * *
U. of Miami !! FL * * * *
U. of Michigan !! MI * * * * *
U. of Minnesota, Morris !! MN * * *
U. of Minnesota, Twin Cities !! MN * * * * * *
U. of Missouri-Columbia !! MO * * *
U. of Missouri-Kansas City !! MO *
U. of Missouri-Rolla !! MO * * *
U. of Montana !! MT *
U. of Nebraska-Lincoln !! NE *
U. of New Hampshire !! NH * * * *
U. of North Carolina at Asheville !! * * *
U. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill !! NC * * * * *
U. of North Dakota !! ND *
U. of Notre Dame !! IN * * * * * * *
U. of Oklahoma !! OK * * * *
U. of Oregon !! OR * *
U. of Pennsylvania !! PA * * * * * * *
U. of Pittsburgh !! PA * * * * *
U. of Portland [yes] OR *
U. of Puget Sound !! WA * * *
U. of Redlands !! CA * * *
U. of Rhode Island !! RI * *
U. of Richmond !! VA * * * * *
U. of Rochester !! NY * * *
U. of St. Thomas !! MN *
U. of San Francisco !! CA *
U. of South Carolina !! SC * *
U. of Southern California !! CA * * * *
U. of Tennessee !! TN * * * *
U. of Texas at Austin !! TX * * * * * *
U. of the South !! * * * * * *
U. of Utah !! UT * *
U. of Vermont !! VT * * * *
U. of Virginia !! VA * * * * * *
U. of Washington !! WA * * * * * *
U. of Wisconsin–Madison !! WI * * * * * *
U. of Wyoming !! WY *
Ursinus C. !! PA * * *
Valparaiso U. !! IN * * *
Vanderbilt U. !! TN * * * * *
Vassar C. !! NY * * * * * *
Villanova U. !! PA * * * * *
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State U. !! VA * * * *
Wabash C. !! IN * * * * * *
Warren Wilson C. !! NC *
Wartburg C. !! IA *
Washington and Lee U. !! VA * * * * * * *
Washington C. !! MD * *
Washington U. !! MO * * * * * *
Wellesley C. !! MA * * * * * *
Wells C. !! NY * *
Wesleyan U. !! CT * * * * * *
West Virginia Wesleyan C. [yes] WV *
Westminster Choir C. of Rider U. !! NJ *
Westminster C. !! MO
Wheaton C. !! IL * * * *
Wheaton C. !! MA * * *
Whitman C. !! WA * * * * *
Whittier C. !! CA * * *
Willamette U. !! OR * * *
William Jewell C. [yes] MO *
Williams C. !! MA * * * * * * *
Wingate U. !! NC *
Winona State U. !! MN *
Wittenberg U. !! OH * * * *
Wofford C. !! SC * * * * *
Worcester Polytechnic Institute !! MA * * * *
Xavier U. !! OH *
Yale U. !! CT * * * * * *
Entries followed by double exclamation points (!!) are those confirmed to have admitted at least one homeschooled applicant. Asterisks (* *) following names of schools known to accept homeschoolers show how many printed sources of college ratings mention those schools as “selective” or “good” colleges. See subpages for other colleges A-G, forother colleges H-S, for other colleges T-Z, and for open-admission colleges reported to have accepted home-schooled students.
It is reported that every one of the colleges listed in the various subpages of this FAQ has offered admission to at least one “home schooled” applicant (who may or may not have enrolled there). Those that I have confirmed as definitely having made a firm offer of admission to a homeschooled applicant are marked with double exclamation points (“!!”) on the page where they are listed. Colleges known to recruit homeschoolers, those that describe admission procedures for home-schooled applicants in their application materials, or those whose admission officers indicate that they would admit homeschooled applicants are marked as “[yes].” As the reconfirmation process continues, the “!!” mark will take precedence over any other applicable mark describing a school’s admission of homeschoolers. Below is information to help you pursue knowledge about homeschool college admission.
More than 600 open admission two-year colleges and more than 100 open admission four-year colleges in the United States are listed in The College Handbook 2000 at pages 1791-1794. Those known to have admitted homeschoolers are now listed on a page about open-admission schools for homeschoolers to save space on this main FAQ page.
College admission of applicants without high school diplomas has been going on for a long time. Harvard College specifically mentions that Harvard has never required a high school diploma for admission. Stanford University makes clear in a form letter to homeschooled applicants that a high school diploma is not necessary for admission. The United States Air Force Academy now has a specific Web page with answers to questions about homeschool admission procedures, a sign that it gets that kind of question quite often. More and more colleges are following their lead and mentioning admission policies for homeschoolers on-line or in printed materials.
A parenting resources Web site features an on-line article by Bruce Hammond that makes clear that many colleges think homeschoolers are “often better socialized and more mature than students in public schools.” The pan-Canadian homeschooling resource site on the Web has a detailed page about Canadian Universities Accepting Homeschoolerswith much information about specific admission requirements. If you want to get into higher education, home education in younger years is no barrier. A useful website about this issue is the Homeschool Success: High School Planning for College Admissions Success website kept by a friend of mine whom I met at conferences about education.
Colleges that accept homeschoolers rely on various materials in place of high school grades, including, perhaps, portfolios of student work, the applicant’s personal essay, SAT I test or ACT test scores, grades from open admission community colleges, and personal recommendations. Challenging extracurricular activities are generally important for nontraditional applicants, and especially important for all applicants who hope to get scholarships. I have found out from telephone interviews with admission officers that admission criteria can vary quite widely. One Bible college admission officer told me that homeschoolers are welcomed by her school, but that applicants without a high school diploma are required to take the GED exam. Some quite selective colleges will admit anyone with scores on the SAT or ACT above a certain level, and will consider other applicants based on portfolios of the applicants’ academic work. Cafi Cohen’s Web site has especially detailed descriptions of some colleges’ admission procedures that I won’t duplicate here; her site is very helpful.
Feel free to browse the other pages of the Colleges That Admit Homeschoolers FAQ, besides this main page, for more detailed information. The overall structure of the FAQ is like the outline below:
[Last revision 9 March 2013]
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This School Is Dead: Colleges That Admit Homeschoolers FAQ page is copyright © 2013 Karl M. Bunday, all rights reserved.
A general State education is a mere contrivance for moulding people to be exactly like one another: and as the mould in which it casts them is that which pleases the predominant power in the government, whether this be a monarch, a priesthood, an aristocracy, or the majority of the existing generation in proportion as it is efficient and successful, it establishes a despotism over the mind, leading by a natural tendency to one over the body.
Maslow (1943) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fulfill the next one, and so on.
The earliest and most widespread version of Maslow’s (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needs includes five motivational needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid.
This five stage model can be divided into basic (or deficiency) needs (e.g. physiological, safety, love, and esteem) and growth needs (self-actualization).
The deficiency, or basic needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfil such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food the more hungry they will become.
One must satisfy lower level basic needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. Once these needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization.
Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization. Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by failure to meet lower level needs. Life experiences, including divorce and loss of job may cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of the hierarchy.
Maslow noted only one in a hundred people become fully self-actualized because our society rewards motivation primarily based on esteem, love and other social needs.
1. Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.
2. Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.
3. Love and belongingness needs – friendship, intimacy, affection and love, – from work group, family, friends, romantic relationships.
4. Esteem needs – achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, self-respect, respect from others.
5. Self-Actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
Maslow posited that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy:
‘It is quite true that man lives by bread alone — when there is no bread. But what happens to man’s desires when there is plenty of bread and when his belly is chronically filled?
At once other (and “higher”) needs emerge and these, rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And when these in turn are satisfied, again new (and still “higher”) needs emerge and so on. This is what we mean by saying that the basic human needs are organized into a hierarchy of relative prepotency’ (Maslow, 1943, p. 375).
It is important to note that Maslow’s (1943, 1954) five stage model has been expanded to include cognitive and aesthetic needs (Maslow, 1970a) and later transcendence needs (Maslow, 1970b).
Changes to the original five-stage model are highlighted and include a seven-stage model and a eight-stage model, both developed during the 1960’s and 1970s.
1. Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
2. Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, etc.
3. Love and belongingness needs – friendship, intimacy, affection and love, – from work group, family, friends, romantic relationships.
4. Esteem needs – self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.
5. Cognitive needs – knowledge, meaning, etc.
6. Aesthetic needs – appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.
7. Self-Actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
8. Transcendence needs – helping others to achieve self actualization.
Instead of focusing on psychopathology and what goes wrong with people, Maslow (1943) formulated a more positive account of human behavior which focused on what goes right. He was interested in human potential, and how we fulfill that potential.
Psychologist Abraham Maslow (1943, 1954) stated that human motivation is based on people seeking fulfillment and change through personal growth. Self-actualized people are those who were fulfilled and doing all they were capable of.
The growth of self-actualization (Maslow, 1962) refers to the need for personal growth and discovery that is present throughout a person’s life. For Maslow, a person is always ‘becoming’ and never remains static in these terms. In self-actualization a person comes to find a meaning to life that is important to them.
As each person is unique the motivation for self-actualization leads people in different directions (Kenrick et al., 2010). For some people self-actualization can be achieved through creating works of art or literature, for others through sport, in the classroom, or within a corporate setting.
Maslow (1962) believed self-actualization could be measured through the concept of peak experiences. This occurs when a person experiences the world totally for what it is, and there are feelings of euphoria, joy and wonder.
It is important to note that self-actualization is a continual process of becoming rather than a perfect state one reaches of a ‘happy ever after’ (Hoffman, 1988).
Maslow offers the following description of self-actualization:
‘It refers to the person’s desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially.
The specific form that these needs will take will of course vary greatly from person to person. In one individual it may take the form of the desire to be an ideal mother, in another it may be expressed athletically, and in still another it may be expressed in painting pictures or in inventions’ (Maslow, 1943, p. 382–383).
Although we are all, theoretically, capable of self-actualizing, most of us will not do so, or only to a limited degree. Maslow (1970) estimated that only two percent of people will reach the state of self actualization. He was particularly interested in the characteristics of people whom he considered to have achieved their potential as persons.
By studying 18 people he considered to be self-actualized (including Abraham Lincoln and Albert Einstein) Maslow (1970) identified 15 characteristics of a self-actualized person.
1. They perceive reality efficiently and can tolerate uncertainty;
2. Accept themselves and others for what they are;
3. Spontaneous in thought and action;
4. Problem-centered (not self-centered);
5. Unusual sense of humor;
6. Able to look at life objectively;
7. Highly creative;
8. Resistant to enculturation, but not purposely unconventional;
9. Concerned for the welfare of humanity;
10. Capable of deep appreciation of basic life-experience;
11. Establish deep satisfying interpersonal relationships with a few people;
12. Peak experiences;
13. Need for privacy;
14. Democratic attitudes;
15. Strong moral/ethical standards.
(a) Experiencing life like a child, with full absorption and concentration;
(b) Trying new things instead of sticking to safe paths;
(c) Listening to your own feelings in evaluating experiences instead of the voice of tradition, authority or the majority;
(d) Avoiding pretense (‘game playing’) and being honest;
(e) Being prepared to be unpopular if your views do not coincide with those of the majority;
(f) Taking responsibility and working hard;
(g) Trying to identify your defenses and having the courage to give them up.
The characteristics of self-actualizers and the behaviors leading to self-actualization are shown in the list above. Although people achieve self-actualization in their own unique way, they tend to share certain characteristics. However, self-actualization is a matter of degree, ‘There are no perfect human beings’ (Maslow,1970a, p. 176).
It is not necessary to display all 15 characteristics to become self-actualized, and not only self-actualized people will display them. Maslow did not equate self-actualization with perfection. Self-actualization merely involves achieving ones potential. Thus, someone can be silly, wasteful, vain and impolite, and still self-actualize. Less than two percent of the population achieve self-actualization.
Maslow’s (1968) hierarchy of needs theory has made a major contribution to teaching and classroom management in schools. Rather than reducing behavior to a response in the environment, Maslow (1970a) adopts a holistic approach to education and learning. Maslow looks at the entire physical, emotional, social, and intellectual qualities of an individual and how they impact on learning.
Applications of Maslow’s hierarchy theory to the work of the classroom teacher are obvious. Before a student’s cognitive needs can be met they must first fulfill their basic physiological needs. For example a tired and hungry student will find it difficult to focus on learning. Students need to feel emotionally and physically safe and accepted within the classroom to progress and reach their full potential.
Maslow suggests students must be shown that they are valued and respected in the classroom and the teacher should create a supportive environment. Students with a low self-esteem will not progress academically at an optimum rate until their self-esteem is strengthened.
APA Style References
Hoffman, E. (1988). The right to be human: A biography of Abraham Maslow. Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc.
Kenrick, D. T., Neuberg, S. L., Griskevicius, V., Becker, D. V., & Schaller, M. (2010). Goal-Driven Cognition and Functional Behavior The Fundamental-Motives Framework. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(1), 63-67.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-96.
Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Maslow, A. H. (1962). Towards a psychology of being. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company.
Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a Psychology of Being. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company.
Maslow, A. H. (1970a). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row.
Maslow, A. H. (1970b). Religions, values, and peak experiences. New York: Penguin. (Original work published 1964)
Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 354.
The most significant limitation of Maslow’s theory concerns his methodology. Maslow formulated the characteristics of self-actualized individuals from undertaking a qualitative method called biographical analysis.
He looked at the biographies and writings of 18 people he identified as being self-actualized. From these sources he developed a list of qualities that seemed characteristic of this specific group of people, as opposed to humanity in general.
From a scientific perspective there are numerous problems with this particular approach. First, it could be argued that biographical analysis as a method is extremely subjective as it is based entirely on the opinion of the researcher. Personal opinion is always prone to bias, which reduces the validity of any data obtained. Therefore Maslow’s operational definition of self-actualization must not be blindly accepted as scientific fact.
Furthermore, Maslow’s biographical analysis focused on a biased sample of self-actualized individuals, prominently limited to highly educated white males (such as Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein, William James, Aldous Huxley, Gandhi, Beethoven).
Although Maslow (1970) did study self-actualized females, such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Mother Teresa, they comprised a small proportion of his sample. This makes it difficult to generalize his theory to females and individuals from lower social classes or different ethnicity. Thus questioning the population validity of Maslow’s findings.
Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to empirically test Maslow’s concept of self-actualization in a way that causal relationships can be established.
Another criticism concerns Maslow’s assumption that the lower needs must be satisfied before a person can achieve their potential and self-actualize. This is not always the case, and therefore Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in some aspects has been falsified.
Through examining cultures in which large numbers of people live in poverty (such as India) it is clear that people are still capable of higher order needs such as love and belongingness. However, this should not occur, as according to Maslow, people who have difficulty achieving very basic physiological needs (such as food, shelter etc.) are not capable of meeting higher growth needs.
Also, many creative people, such as authors and artists (e.g. Rembrandt and Van Gough) lived in poverty throughout their lifetime, yet it could be argued that they achieved self-actualization.
Contemporary research by Tay & Diener (2011) has tested Maslow’s theory by analyzing the data of 60,865 participants from 123 countries, representing every major region of the world. The survey was conducted from 2005 to 2010.
Respondents answered questions about six needs that closely resemble those in Maslow’s model: basic needs (food, shelter); safety; social needs (love, support); respect; mastery; and autonomy. They also rated their well-being across three discrete measures: life evaluation (a person’s view of his or her life as a whole), positive feelings (day-to-day instances of joy or pleasure), and negative feelings (everyday experiences of sorrow, anger, or stress).
The results of the study support the view that universal human needs appear to exist regardless of cultural differences. However, the ordering of the needs within the hierarchy was not correct.
“Although the most basic needs might get the most attention when you don’t have them,” Diener explains, “you don’t need to fulfill them in order to get benefits [from the others].” Even when we are hungry, for instance, we can be happy with our friends. “They’re like vitamins,” Diener says about how the needs work independently. “We need them all.”
“Nothing is better for a man than that he should eat and drink, and that his soul should enjoy good in his labor. This also, I saw, was from the hand of God.” (Ecclesiastes 2:24)
Call it tough love. God’s tough love.
If you don’t work, you don’t eat.
“For even when we were with you, we commanded you this: If anyone will not work, neither shall he eat.” (2 Thessalonians 3:10)
And it all started in the Garden of Eden:
“The Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to work it and keep it.” (Genesis 2:15)
Working with our hands and minds is all part of God’s blueprint and purpose for our lives.
Faith in God plus Labor = Success = Prosperity = A blessing to others.
We are rewarded through our labor because God wants us to be successful as we keep our mind on Him:
“In everything he did he had great success, because the Lord was with him.” (1 Samuel 18:14)
God wants us to be prosperous:
“But remember the Lord your God, for it is He who gives you the ability to produce wealth, and so confirms his covenant, which He swore to your ancestors, as it is today.” (Deuteronomy 8:18)
God wants us to use our labor as wage-earners to be a blessing to others in need:
“Whoever oppresses a poor man insults his Maker, but he who is generous to the needy honors him.” (Proverbs 14:31)
God does not want us to be, well, lazy:
“The soul of the sluggard craves and gets nothing, while the soul of the diligent is richly supplied.” (Proverbs 13:4)
Our country’s Judeo-Christian values and work ethics are quickly being eroded by a nationwide Nanny State belief system where government wants to take care of us from cradle to grave.
Our new government health-care mandate actually rewards you through subsidies for doing less, not more, work.
The lower your income, the higher your subsidy. It kills the incentive to work to succeed.
It’s a counter-productive system that feeds on itself. The more you are dependent on government to take care of you, the less you see the need to take care of yourself.
(Do read this revealing study by Dr. Robert Rector and Rachel Sheffield, “Understanding Poverty in the United States: Surprising Facts About America’s Poor”).
Unfortunately, it has given rise to an entitlement society.
But before you get your feathers ruffled, I am not advocating doing away with social programs such as food stamps (an $80 billion-a-year government program that costs twice what it did just five years ago) and welfare.
I am advocating doing away with the deep fraud that costs taxpayers billions of dollars annually, and doing away with the notion that government programs are a substitute for hard work.
Now that recreational use of marijuana has been legalized in Colorado, a new form of welfare abuse has surfaced: The use of EBT (Electronic Benefit Transfer) cards to purchase pot.
Colorado issues its EBT in the form of a Quest card.
While some argue that safeguards are in place to prevent food stamp cards from being used to purchase anything other than foods, a check of the Boulder City government website says you can use your Quest card to withdraw cash from an ATM, which is what is happening at several Denver-area pot shops equipped with these money machines.
It’s an obvious abuse of taxpayer funds that for now is legal in Colorado.
Truly, God commands us to take care of the poor and the widows. That is Christian charity.
There are those who are laid off from their jobs through no fault of their own and are earnestly looking for work.
There are those who are disabled and want to work but can’t.
There are those who have worked hard all their lives but now, be it their age, changing technology or lack of modern skills, are shut out of the employment field.
They can’t find work and are desperate; they need food stamps and unemployment benefits to make ends meet until they get back on their feet.
That’s totally understandable.
But what about those who refuse to take a job because they feel it is beneath them or that it doesn’t pay enough to suit their tastes?
Why work two part-time jobs when you can collect more from the government?
Work ethics say a lot about our relationship with God. If you are not working, is it because you cannot get a job or don’t want one? If you are working, what is your attitude towards your job?
Perhaps it’s a feeling of frustration with life that translates into “the government owes me a living.”
No matter the reasoning, there are those who don’t want to pull the cart.
They want to ride in the cart and have the rest of the work force do the pulling.
And that cart is overloaded.
Not wanting to work or having a bad attitude at work is not what God wants for you.
If you are a Christian and count yourself among those in the cart and you are able to work, you had better do some soul-searching.
“A slack hand causes poverty, but the hand of the diligent makes rich.” (Proverbs 10:4)
Your attitude towards work says a lot about your attitude towards God.
“Whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord and not for men.” (Colossians 3:23)
I learned a valuable lesson over the years. I don’t work for a company, I work for Jesus.
Before my recent retirement, I didn’t always like my job, but I went to work in the mornings to a job where Jesus is the Chairman of the Board.
Jesus is the boss. That is my attitude.
I had not called in sick in at least 5 years. I didn’t take “mental days” off. I started work about 20 minutes early.
I prayed that God would see me through the tough spots and thanked Him for the less crazed moments.
Today, I work a part-time job and have the same attitude. Work as if unto the Lord.
My reward? I have been able to enjoy the fruits of my labor, just as God intended, and I have been working since I was 13.
I have found you cannot separate the two – work and God – because they are intrinsically connected to who you are as a Christian.
Your work ethic is part of your Christian walk.
How you view work and how you handle your job speaks volumes to others about your Christianity.
How would you rate your work ethics? Would you hire you?
Are you the kind of worker a boss swears by … or at?
Unfortunately today, not many are willing to acknowledge Jesus as the Chairman of the Board at their job.
My father was from the Old Country. He used to tell us kids, “You can have anything you want in America … but you have to WORK for it.”
No matter Dad’s faults, he instilled in us a strong work ethic.
During a rough patch between jobs, my Dad mowed lawns. He was an immigrant. He never had the attitude of “Where’s mine?”
He never thought the government owed him a living. He worked. We never went hungry.
Although my parents were not Christians, God provided out of his love and abundance. I believe He honored my Dad’s work ethics.
“You shall eat the fruit of the labor of your hands; you shall be blessed, and it shall be well with you.” (Psalms 128:2)
As the Bible says:
“In all toil there is profit, but mere talk tends only to poverty.” (Proverbs 14:23)
Through work we meet our needs, the needs of our families and the needs of others, all spokes in the big wheel of life.
Our work grows the economy, raises taxes, pays wages, and through that we are able to support the church and help the poor.
Whether you are looking for a job or trying to make the most of the one you have, remember you have a friend you can always talk to.
You have a Chairman of the Board who is never too busy to take your call.